American Dental Associations Guidelines for Teaching Pain Control and Sedation To Dentists and Dental Students

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I.     INTRODUCTION

The administration of local anesthesia, sedation and general anesthesia is an integral part of the practice of dentistry. The American Dental Association is committed to the safe and effective use of these modalities by appropriately educated and trained dentists.

Anxiety and pain control can be defined as the application of various physical, chemical and psychological modalities to the prevention and treatment of preoperative, operative and postoperative patient anxiety and pain to allow dental treatment to occur in a safe and effective manner. It involves all disciplines of dentistry and, as such, is one of the most important aspects of dental education. The intent of these Guidelines is to provide direction for the teaching of pain control and sedation to dentists and can be applied at

all levels of dental education from predoctoral through continuing education. They are designed to teach initial competency in pain control and minimal and moderate sedation techniques.

These Guidelines recognize that many dentists have acquired a high degree of competency in the use of anxiety and pain control techniques through a combination of instruction and experience. It is assumed that this has enabled these teachers and practitioners to meet the educational criteria described in this document.

It is not the intent of the Guidelines to fit every program into the same rigid educational mold. This is neither possible nor desirable. There must always be room for innovation and improvement. They do, however, provide a

reasonable measure of program acceptability, applicable to all institutions and agencies engaged in predoctoral and continuing education.

The curriculum in anxiety and pain control is a continuum of educational experiences that will extend over several years of the predoctoral program. It should provide the dental student with the knowledge and skills necessary to provide minimal sedation to alleviate anxiety and control pain without inducing detrimental physiological or psychological side effects. Dental schools whose goal is to have predoctoral students achieve competency in techniques such as local anesthesia and nitrous oxide inhalation and minimal sedation must meet all of the goals, prerequisites, didactic content, clinical experiences, faculty and facilities, as described in these Guidelines.

Techniques for the control of anxiety and pain in dentistry should include both psychological and pharmacological modalities. Psychological strategies should include simple relaxation techniques for the anxious patient and more comprehensive behavioral techniques to control pain. Pharma- cological strategies should include not only local anesthetics but also sedatives, analgesics and other useful agents. Dentists should learn indications and techniques for administering these drugs enterally, parenterally and by inhalation as supplements to local anesthesia.

The predoctoral curriculum should provide instruction, exposure and/or experience in anxiety and pain control, including minimal and moderate sedation. The predoctoral program must also provide the knowledge and skill to enable students to recognize and manage any emergencies that might arise as a consequence of treatment. Predoctoral dental students must complete a course in Basic Life Support for the Healthcare Provider. Though Basic Life Support courses are available online, any course taken online should be followed up with a hands-on component and be approved by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross.

Local anesthesia is the foundation of pain control in dentistry. Although the use of local anesthetics in dentistry has a long record of safety, dentists must be aware of the maximum safe dosage limit for each patient, since large doses of local anesthetics may increase the level of central nervous system depression with sedation. The use of minimal and moderate sedation requires an understanding of local anesthesia and the physiologic and pharmacologic implications of the local anesthetic agents when combined with the sedative agents.

Level of sedation is entirely independent of the route of administration. Moderate and deep sedation or general anesthesia may be achieved via any route of administration and thus an appropriately consistent level of training must be established.

For children, the American Dental Association supports the use of the American Academy of Pediatrics/American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Guidelines for Monitoring and Management of Pediatric Patients During and After Sedation for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures.

The knowledge, skill and clinical experience required for the safe administration of deep sedation and/or general anesthesia are beyond the scope of predoctoral and continuing education programs. Advanced education programs that teach deep sedation and/or general anesthesia

to competency have specific teaching requirements described in the Commission on Dental Accreditation requirements for those advanced programs and represent the educational and clinical requirements for teaching deep sedation and/or general anesthesia in dentistry.

The objective of educating dentists to utilize pain control, sedation and general anesthesia is to enhance their ability to provide oral health care. The American Dental Association urges dentists to participate regularly in continuing education update courses in these modalities in order to remain current.

All areas in which local anesthesia and sedation are being used must be properly equipped with suction, physiologic monitoring equipment, a positive pressure oxygen delivery system suitable for the patient being treated and emergency drugs. Protocols for the management of emergencies must be developed and training programs held at frequent intervals.

 

 

II.      DEFINITIONS

METHODS OF ANXIETY AND PAIN CONTROL

 

MINIMAL SEDATION (previously known as anxiolysis) – a minimally depressed level of consciousness, produced by a pharmacological method, that retains the patient’s ability to independently and continuously maintain an airway and respond normally to tactile stimulation and verbal command. Although cognitive function and coordination may be modestly impaired, ventilatory and cardiovascular functions are unaffected.1

Patients whose only response is reflex withdrawal from repeated painful stimuli would not be considered to be in a state of minimal sedation.

 

The following definitions apply to administration of minimal sedation:

maximum recommended dose (MRD) – maximum FDA-recommended dose of a drug, as printed in FDA-approved labeling for unmonitored home use.

dosing for minimal sedation via the enteral route – minimal sedation may be achieved by the administration of a drug, either singly or in divided doses, by the enteral route to achieve the desired clinical effect, not to exceed the maximum recommended dose (MRD).

The administration of enteral drugs exceeding the maximum recommended dose during a single appointment is considered to be moderate sedation and the moderate sedation guidelines apply.

Nitrous oxide/oxygen when used in combination with sedative agent(s) may produce minimal, moderate, deep sedation or general anesthesia.

If more than one enteral drug is administered to achieve the desired sedation effect, with or without the concomitant use of nitrous oxide, the guidelines for moderate sedation must apply.

Note: In accord with this particular definition, the drug(s) and/or techniques used should carry a margin of safety wide enough never to render unintended loss of consciousness. The use of the MRD to guide dosing for minimal sedation is intended to create this margin of safety.

 

MODERATE SEDATION – a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation is adequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.1

Note: In accord with this particular definition, the drugs and/or techniques used should carry a margin of safety wide enough to render unintended loss of consciousness unlikely. Repeated dosing of an agent before the effects of previous dosing can be fully appreciated may result in a greater alteration of the state of consciousness than is the intent of the dentist. Further, a patient whose only response is reflex withdrawal from a painful stimulus is not considered to be in a state of moderate sedation.

The following definition applies to administration of moderate and deeper levels of sedation:

titration – administration of incremental doses of an intravenous or inhalation drug until a desired effect is reached. Knowledge of each drug’s time of onset, peak response and duration of action is essential to avoid over sedation. Although the concept of titration of a drug to effect is critical for patient safety, when the intent is moderate sedation one must know whether the previous dose has taken full effect before administering an additional drug increment.

deep sedation – a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposefully following repeated or painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. Patients may require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and spontaneous ventilation may be inadequate. Cardiovascular function is usually maintained.1

general anesthesia – a drug-induced loss of consciousness during which patients are not arousable, even by painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function is often impaired. Patients often require assistance in maintaining a patent airway, and positive pressure ventilation may be required because of depressed spontaneous ventilation or drug- induced depression of neuromuscular function. Cardiovascular function may be impaired.1

Because sedation and general anesthesia are a continuum, it is not always possible to predict how an individual patient will respond. Hence, practitioners intending to produce a given level of sedation should be able to diagnose and manage the physiologic consequences (rescue) for patients whose level of sedation becomes deeper than initially intended.1

For all levels of sedation, the qualified dentist must have the training, skills, drugs and equipment to identify and manage such an occurrence until either assistance arrives (emergency medical service) or the patient returns to the intended level of sedation without airway or cardiovascular complications.

 

ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION

enteral – any technique of administration in which the agent is absorbed through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract or oral mucosa [i.e., oral, rectal, sublingual].

parenteral – a technique of administration in which the drug bypasses the gastrointestinal (GI) tract [i.e., intramuscular (IM), intravenous (IV), intranasal (IN), submucosal (SM), subcutaneous (SC), intraosseous (IO)].

transdermal – a technique of administration in which the drug is administered by patch or iontophoresis through skin.

transmucosal – a technique of administration in which the drug is administered across mucosa such as intranasal, sublingual, or rectal.

inhalation – a technique of administration in which a gaseous or volatile agent is introduced into the lungs and whose primary effect is due to absorption through the gas/blood interface.

 

TERMS

analgesia – the diminution or elimination of pain.

local anesthesia – the elimination of sensation, especially pain, in one part of the body by the topical application or regional injection of a drug.

Note: Although the use of local anesthetics is the foundation of pain control in dentistry and has a long record of safety, dentists must always be aware of the maximum, safe dosage limits for each patient. Large doses of local anesthetics in themselves may result in central nervous system depression especially in combination with sedative agents.

qualified dentist – a dentist providing sedation and anesthesia in compliance with their state rules and/or regulations.

must/shall indicates an imperative need and/or duty; an essential or indispensable item; mandatory.

should – indicates the recommended manner to obtain the standard; highly desirable.

may – indicates freedom or liberty to follow a reasonable alternative. continual – repeated regularly and frequently in a steady succession. continuous – prolonged without any interruption at any time.

time-oriented anesthesia record documentation at appropriate time intervals of drugs, doses and physiologic data obtained during patient monitoring.

immediately available – on site in the facility and available for immediate use.

LEVELS OF KNOWLEDGE

familiarity – a simplified knowledge for the purpose of orientation and recognition of general principles.

in-depth – a thorough knowledge of concepts and theories for the purpose of critical analysis and the synthesis of more complete understanding (highest level of knowledge).

LEVELS OF SKILL

exposed – the level of skill attained by observation of or participation in a particular activity.

competent – displaying special skill or knowledge derived from training and experience.

 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ANESTHESIOLOGISTS (ASA) PATIENT PHYSICAL STATUS  CLASSIFICATION2
ASA II

A patient with mild systemic disease

Mild diseases only without substantive functional limitations.
Classification   Definition Examples, including but not limited to:

Examples include (but not limited to): current smoker, social alcohol drinker, pregnancy, obesity (30 < BMI < 40), well-controlled DM/HTN, mild lung disease

 

ASA IV

A patient with severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life

Examples include (but not limited to): recent ( < 3 months) MI, CVA,

TIA, or CAD/stents, ongoing cardiac ischemia or severe valve dysfunction, severe reduction of ejection fraction, sepsis, DIC, ARD or *ESRD not undergoing regularly scheduled dialysis

*The addition of “E” denotes emergency surgery: (An emergency is defined as existing when delay in treatment of the patient would lead to a significant increase in the threat to life or body part)

 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ANESTHESIOLOGISTS’ FASTING GUIDELINES3

Ingested Material       Minimum Fasting Period

Clear liquids                 2 hours

Breast milk                  4 hours

Infant formula             6 hours

Nonhuman milk            6 hours

Light meal                      6 hours
Fatty meal                      8 hours

 

EDUCATION COURSES

Education may be offered at different levels (competency, update, survey courses and advanced education programs). A description of these different levels follows:

  1. Competency Courses are designed to meet the needs of dentists who wish to become competent in the safe and effective administration of local anesthesia, minimal and moderate They consist of lectures, demonstrations and sufficient clinical participation to assure the faculty that the dentist understands the procedures taught and can safely and effectively apply them so that mastery of the subject is achieved. Faculty must assess and document the dentist’s competency upon successful completion of such training. To maintain competency, periodic update courses must be completed.
  2. Update Courses are designed for persons with previous They are intended to provide a review of the subject and an introduction to recent advances in the field. They should be designed didactically and clinically to meet the specific needs of the participants. Participants must have completed previous competency training (equivalent, at a minimum, to the com- petency course described in this document) and have current experience to be eligible for enrollment in an update course.
  3. Survey Courses are designed to provide general information about subjects related to pain control and Such courses should be didactic and not clinical in nature, since they are not intended to develop clinical competency.
  4. Advanced Education Courses are a component of an advanced dental education program, accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation in accord with the Accreditation Standards for advanced dental education These courses are designed to prepare the graduate dentist or postdoctoral student in the most comprehensive manner to be competent in the safe and effective administration of minimal, moderate and deep sedation and general anesthesia.

 

 

III.       TEACHING PAIN CONTROL

These Guidelines present a basic overview of the recommendations for teaching pain control.

 

  1. General Objectives: Upon completion of a predoctoral curriculum in pain control the dentist must:
    1. have an in-depth knowledge of those aspects of anatomy, physiology, pharmacology and psychology involved in the use of various anxiety and pain control methods;
    2. be competent in evaluating the psychological and physical status of the patient, as well as the magnitude of the operative procedure, in order to select the proper regimen;
    3. be competent in monitoring vital functions;
    4. be competent in prevention, recognition and management of related complications;
    5. have in-depth knowledge of the appropriateness of and the indications for medical consul- tation or referral; and
    6. be competent in the maintenance of proper records with accurate chart entries recording medical history, physical examination, vital signs, drugs administered and patient

 

B.        Pain Control Curriculum Content:

  1. Philosophy of anxiety and pain control and patient management, including the nature and purpose of pain
  2. Review of physiologic and psychologic aspects of anxiety and pain
  3. Review of airway anatomy and physiology
  4. Physiologic monitoring
    1. Observation
      • Central nervous system
      • Respiratory system
        • Oxygenation
        • Ventilation
      • Cardiovascular system
    2. Monitoring equipment
  5. Pharmacologic aspects of anxiety and pain control
    1. Routes of drug administration
    2. Sedatives and anxiolytics
    3. Local anesthetics
    4. Analgesics and antagonists
    5. Adverse side effects
    6. Drug interactions
    7. Drug abuse
  6. Control of preoperative and operative anxiety and pain

 

 

  1. Patient evaluation
    • Psychological status
    • ASA physical status
    • Type and extent of operative procedure
  2. Nonpharmacologic methods
    • Psychological and behavioral methods
      • Anxiety management
      • Relaxation techniques
      • Systematic desensitization
    • Interpersonal strategies of patient management
    • Hypnosis
    • Electronic dental anesthesia
    • Acupuncture/Acupressure
    • Other
  3. Local anesthesia
    • Review of related anatomy, and physiology
    • Pharmacology
  • Dosing
  • Toxicity
  • Selection of agents
    • Techniques of administration
  • Topical
  • Infiltration (supraperiosteal)
  • Nerve block – maxilla – to include: (aa) Posterior superior alveolar (bb) Infraorbital

(cc) Nasopalatine (dd) Greater palatine

(ee) Maxillary (2nd division) (ff) Other blocks

  • Nerve block – mandible – to include: (aa) Inferior alveolar-lingual

(bb) Mental-incisive (cc) Buccal

(dd) Gow-Gates (ee) Closed mouth

  • Alternative injections – to include: (aa) Periodontal ligament

(bb) Intraosseous

  1. Prevention, recognition and management of complications and emergencies

 

  1. Sequence of Pain Control Didactic and Clinical Instruction: Beyond the basic didactic instruction in local anesthesia, additional time should be provided for demonstrations and clinical practice of the injection The teaching of other methods of anxiety and pain control, such as the use of analgesics and enteral, inhalation and parenteral sedation, should be coordinated with a course in pharmacology. By this time the student also will have developed a better understanding of patient evaluation and the problems related to prior patient care.

As part of this instruction, the student should be taught the techniques of venipuncture and physiologic monitoring. Time should be included for demonstration of minimal and moderate sedation techniques.

Following didactic instruction in minimal and moderate sedation, the student must receive sufficient clinical experience to demonstrate competency in those techniques in which the student is to be certified. It is understood that not all institutions may be able to provide instruction to the level of clinical competence in pharmacologic sedation modalities to all students. The amount of clinical experience required to achieve competency will vary accord- ing to student ability, teaching methods and the anxiety and pain control modality taught.

Clinical experience in minimal and moderate sedation techniques should be related to various disciplines of dentistry and not solely limited to surgical cases. Typically, such experience will be provided in managing healthy adult patients.

Throughout both didactic and clinical instruction in anxiety and pain control, psychological management of the patient should also be stressed. Instruction should emphasize that the need for sedative techniques is directly related to the patient’s level of anxiety, cooperation, medical condition and the planned procedures.

 

  1. Faculty: Instruction must be provided by qualified faculty for whom anxiety and pain control are areas of major proficiency, interest and

 

  1. Facilities: Competency courses must be presented where adequate facilities are available for proper patient care, including drugs and equipment for the management of

 

IV.       TEACHING ADMINISTRATION OF MINIMAL SEDATION

The faculty responsible for curriculum in minimal sedation techniques must be familiar with the ADA Policy Statement: Guidelines for the Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists, and the Commission on Dental Accreditation’s Accreditation Standards for dental education programs.

These Guidelines present a basic overview of the recommendations for teaching minimal sedation. These include courses in nitrous oxide/oxygen sedation, enteral sedation, and combined inhalation/enteral  techniques.

General Objectives: Upon completion of a competency course in minimal sedation, the dentist must be able to:

  1. Describe the adult anatomy and physiology of the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems, as they relate to the above
  2. Describe the pharmacological effects of
  3. Describe the methods of obtaining a medical history and conduct an appropriate physical
  4. Apply these methods clinically in order to obtain an accurate
  5. Use this information clinically for ASA classification risk assessment and pre-procedure fasting
  6. Choose the most appropriate technique for the individual
  7. Use appropriate physiologic monitoring
  8. Describe the physiologic responses that are consistent with minimal
  9. Understand the sedation/general anesthesia
  10. Demonstrate the ability to diagnose and treat emergencies related to the next deeper level of anesthesia than

 

INHALATION  SEDATION  (NITROUS OXIDE/OXYGEN)

 

  1. Inhalation Sedation Course Objectives: Upon completion of a competency course in inhalation sedation techniques, the dentist must be able to:
    1. Describe the basic components of inhalation sedation
    2. Discuss the function of each of these
    3. List and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of inhalation
    4. List and discuss the indications and contraindications of inhalation
    5. List the complications associated with inhalation
    6. Discuss the prevention, recognition and management of these
    7. Administer inhalation sedation to patients in a clinical setting in a safe and effective
    8. Discuss the abuse potential, occupational hazards and other untoward effects of inhalation

 

B.        Inhalation Sedation Course Content:

  1. Historical, philosophical and psychological aspects of anxiety and pain
  2. Patient evaluation and selection through review of medical history taking, physical diagnosis and psychological
  3. Definitions and descriptions of physiological and psychological aspects of anxiety and
  4. Description of the stages of drug-induced central nervous system depression through all levels of consciousness and unconsciousness, with special emphasis on the distinction between the conscious and the unconscious
  5. Review of adult respiratory and circulatory physiology and related
  6. Pharmacology of agents used in inhalation sedation, including drug interactions and
  7. Indications and contraindications for use of inhalation
  8. Review of dental procedures possible under inhalation
  9. Patient monitoring using observation and monitoring equipment (i.e., pulse oximetry), with particular attention to vital signs and reflexes related to pharmacology of nitrous
  10. Importance of maintaining proper records with accurate chart entries recording medical history, physical examination, vital signs, drugs and doses administered and patient
  11. Prevention, recognition and management of complications and life-threatening
  12. Administration of local anesthesia in conjunction with inhalation sedation
  13. Description, maintenance and use of inhalation sedation
  14. Introduction to potential health hazards of trace anesthetics and proposed techniques for limiting occupational
  15. Discussion of abuse
  1. Inhalation Sedation Course Duration: While length of a course is only one of the many factors to be considered in determining the quality of an educational program, the course should be a minimum of 14 hours plus management of clinical dental cases, during which clinical competency in inhalation sedation technique is The inhalation sedation course most often is completed as a part of the predoctoral dental education program. However, the course may be completed in a postdoctoral continuing education competency course.
  2. Participant Evaluation and Documentation of Inhalation Sedation Instruction: Competency courses in inhalation sedation techniques must afford participants with sufficient clinical experience to enable them to achieve This experience must be provided under the supervision of qualified faculty and must be evaluated. The course director must certify the competency of participants upon satisfactory completion of training. Records of the didactic instruction and clinical experience, including the number of patients treated by each participant must be maintained and available.
  3. Faculty: The course should be directed by a dentist or physician qualified by experience and This individual should possess an active permit or license to administer moderate seda- tion in at least one state, have had at least three years of experience, including the individual’s formal postdoctoral training in anxiety and pain control. In addition, the participation of highly qualified individuals in related fields, such as anesthesiologists, pharmacologists, internists, and cardiologists and psychologists, should be encouraged.

MINIMAL SEDATION CONTINUED

A participant-faculty ratio of not more than ten-to-one when inhalation sedation is being used allows for adequate supervision during the clinical phase of instruction; a one-to-one ratio is recommended during the early state of participation.

The faculty should provide a mechanism whereby the participant can evaluate the performance of those individuals who present the course material.

 

  1. Facilities: Competency courses must be presented where adequate facilities are available for proper patient care, including drugs and equipment for the management of

 

ENTERAL AND/OR COMBINATION INHALATION-ENTERAL MINIMAL SEDATION

 

  1. Enteral and/or Combination Inhalation-Enteral Minimal Sedation Course Objectives: Upon completion of a competency course in enteral and/or combination inhalation-enteral minimal sedation techniques, the dentist must be able to:
    1. Describe the basic components of inhalation sedation
    2. Discuss the function of each of these
    3. List and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of enteral and/or combination inhalation-enteral minimal sedation (combined minimal sedation).
    4. List and discuss the indications and contraindications for the use of enteral and/or combination inhalation-enteral minimal sedation (combined minimal sedation).
    5. List the complications associated with enteral and/or combination inhalation-enteral minimal sedation (combined minimal sedation).
    6. Discuss the prevention, recognition and management of these
    7. Administer enteral and/or combination inhalation-enteral minimal sedation (combined minimal sedation) to patients in a clinical setting in a safe and effective
    8. Discuss the abuse potential, occupational hazards and other effects of enteral and inhalation
    9. Discuss the pharmacology of the enteral and inhalation drugs selected for
    10. Discuss the precautions, contraindications and adverse reactions associated with the enteral and inhalation drugs
    11. Describe a protocol for management of emergencies in the dental office and list and discuss the emergency drugs and equipment required for management of life-threatening
    12. Demonstrate the ability to manage life-threatening emergency situations, including current certification in Basic Life Support for Healthcare
    13. Discuss the pharmacological effects of combined drug therapy, their implications and their management. Nitrous oxide/oxygen when used in combination with sedative agent(s) may produce minimal, moderate, deep sedation or general

B.        Enteral and/or Combination Inhalation-Enteral Minimal Sedation Course Content:

  1. Historical, philosophical and psychological aspects of anxiety and pain
  2. Patient evaluation and selection through review of medical history taking, physical diagnosis and psychological
  3. Definitions and descriptions of physiological and psychological aspects of anxiety and
  4. Description of the stages of drug-induced central nervous system depression through all levels of consciousness and unconsciousness, with special emphasis on the distinction between the conscious and the unconscious
  5. Review of adult respiratory and circulatory physiology and related
  6. Pharmacology of agents used in enteral and/or combination inhalation-enteral minimal sedation, including drug interactions and
  7. Indications and contraindications for use of enteral and/or combination inhalation-enteral minimal sedation (combined minimal sedation).
  8. Review of dental procedures possible under enteral and/or combination inhalation-enteral minimal sedation).
  9. Patient monitoring using observation, monitoring equipment, with particular attention to vital signs and reflexes related to
  10. Maintaining proper records with accurate chart entries recording medical history, physical examination, informed consent, time-oriented anesthesia record, including the names

of all drugs administered including local anesthetics, doses, and monitored physiological parameters.

  1. Prevention, recognition and management of complications and life-threatening
  2. Administration of local anesthesia in conjunction with enteral and/or combination inhala- tion-enteral minimal sedation
  3. Description, maintenance and use of inhalation sedation
  4. Introduction to potential health hazards of trace anesthetics and proposed techniques for limiting occupational
  5. Discussion of abuse
  1. Enteral and/or Combination Inhalation-Enteral Minimal Sedation Course Duration: Participants must be able to document current certification in Basic Life Support for Healthcare Providers and have completed a nitrous oxide competency course to be eligible for enrollment in this While length of a course is only one of the many factors to be considered in determining the quality of an educational program, the course should include a minimum of 16 hours, plus clinically-oriented experiences during which competency in enteral and/or combined inhala- tion-enteral minimal sedation techniques is demonstrated. Clinically-oriented experiences

may include group observations on patients undergoing enteral and/or combination inhalation- enteral minimal sedation. Clinical experience in managing a compromised airway is critical

to |the prevention of life-threatening emergencies. The faculty should schedule participants to return for additional clinical experience if competency has not been achieved in the time

allotted. The educational course may be completed in a predoctoral dental education curriculum or a postdoctoral continuing education competency course.

D.     Participant Evaluation and Documentation of Instruction: Competency courses in combination inhalation-enteral minimal sedation techniques must afford participants with sufficient clinical understanding to enable them to achieve competency. The course director must certify the competency of participants upon satisfactory completion of the course. Records of the course instruction must be maintained and available.

E.      Faculty: The course should be directed by a dentist or physician qualified by experience and training. This individual should possess a current permit or license to administer moderate sedation in at least one state, have had at least three years of experience, including the individual’s formal postdoctoral training in anxiety and pain control. Dental faculty with broad clinical experience in the particular aspect of the subject under consideration should

participate. In addition, the participation of highly qualified individuals in related fields, such as anesthesiologists, pharmacologists, internists, and cardiologists and psychologists, should be encouraged. The faculty should provide a mechanism whereby the participant can evaluate the performance of those individuals who present the course material.

 

F.      Facilities: Competency courses must be presented where adequate facilities are available for proper patient care, including drugs and equipment for the management of emergencies.

V.      TEACHING ADMINISTRATION OF MODERATE SEDATION

These Guidelines present a basic overview of the requirements for a competency course in moderate sedation. These include courses in enteral and parenteral moderate sedation. The teaching guidelines contained in this section on moderate sedation differ slightly from documents in medicine to reflect the differences in delivery methodologies and practice environment in dentistry.

Completion of a pre-requisite nitrous oxide-oxygen competency course is required for participants combining moderate sedation with nitrous oxide-oxygen.

 

  1. Course Objectives: Upon completion of a course in moderate sedation, the dentist must be able to:
    1. List and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of moderate
    2. Discuss the prevention, recognition and management of complications associated with moderate
    3. Administer moderate sedation to patients in a clinical setting in a safe and effective
    4. Discuss the abuse potential, occupational hazards and other untoward effects of the agents utilized to achieve moderate
    5. Describe and demonstrate the technique of intravenous access, intramuscular injection and other parenteral
    6. Discuss the pharmacology of the drug(s) selected for
    7. Discuss the precautions, indications, contraindications and adverse reactions associated with the drug(s)
  1. Administer the selected drug(s) to dental patients in a clinical setting in a safe and effective
  2. List the complications associated with techniques of moderate
  3. Describe a protocol for management of emergencies in the dental office and list and discuss the emergency drugs and equipment required for the prevention and management of emergency
  4. Discuss principles of advanced cardiac life support or an appropriate dental sedation/ anesthesia emergency course
  5. Demonstrate the ability to manage emergency
  6. Demonstrate the ability to diagnose and treat emergencies related to the next deeper level of anesthesia than

B.        Moderate Sedation Course Content:

  1. Historical, philosophical and psychological aspects of anxiety and pain
  2. Patient evaluation and selection through review of medical history taking, physical diagnosis and psychological
  3. Use of patient history and examination for ASA classification, risk assessment and pre-procedure fasting
  4. Definitions and descriptions of physiological and psychological aspects of anxiety and
  5. Description of the sedation anesthesia continuum, with special emphasis on the distinction between the conscious and the unconscious
  6. Review of adult respiratory and circulatory physiology and related
  7. Pharmacology of local anesthetics and agents used in moderate sedation, including drug interactions and
  8. Indications and contraindications for use of moderate
  9. Review of dental procedures possible under moderate
  10. Patient monitoring using observation and monitoring equipment, with particular attention to vital signs, ventilation/breathing and reflexes related to
  11. Maintaining proper records with accurate chart entries recording medical history, physical examination, informed consent, time-oriented anesthesia record, including the names

of all drugs administered including local anesthetics, doses, and monitored physiological parameters.

  1. Prevention, recognition and management of complications and
  2. Description, maintenance and use of moderate sedation monitors and
  3. Discussion of abuse
  4. Intravenous access: anatomy, equipment and
  5. Prevention, recognition and management of complications of venipuncture and other parenteral
  6. Description and rationale for the technique to be
  7. Prevention, recognition and management of systemic complications of moderate sedation, with particular attention to airway maintenance and support of the respiratory and cardio- vascular

 

  1. Moderate Sedation Course Duration and Documentation: The Course must include:
  • A minimum of 60 hours of instruction plus administration of sedation for at least 20 individually managed
  • Certification of competence in moderate sedation technique(s).
  • Certification of competence in rescuing patients from a deeper level of sedation than intended including managing the airway, intravascular or intraosseous access, and reversal
  • Provision by course director or faculty of additional clinical experience if participant competency has not been achieved in time
  • Records of instruction and clinical experiences (i.e., number of patients managed by each participant in each modality/route) that are maintained and available for participant

 

  1. Documentation of Instruction: The course director must certify the competency of participants upon satisfactory completion of training in each moderate sedation technique, including instruction, clinical experience, managing the airway, intravascular/intraosseous access, and reversal

 

  1. Faculty: The course should be directed by a dentist or physician qualified by experience and training. This individual should possess a current permit or license to administer moderate or deep sedation and general anesthesia in at least one state, have had at least three years of experience, including formal postdoctoral training in anxiety and pain Dental faculty with broad clinical experience in the particular aspect of the subject under consideration should participate. In addition, the participation of highly qualified individuals in related fields, such as anesthesiologists, pharmacologists, internists, cardiologists and psychologists, should be encouraged.

A participant-faculty ratio of not more than four-to-one when moderate sedation is being taught allows for adequate supervision during the clinical phase of instruction. A one-to-one ratio is recommended during the early stage of participation.

The faculty should provide a mechanism whereby the participant can evaluate the perfor- mance of those individuals who present the course material.

 

  1. Facilities: Competency courses in moderate sedation must be presented where adequate facilities are available for proper patient care, including drugs and equipment for the management of These facilities may include dental and medical schools/offices, hospitals and surgical centers.

ENDNOTES

  • Excerpted from Continuum of Depth of Sedation: Definition of General Anesthesia and Levels of Sedation/ Analgesia, 2014, of the American Society of A copy of the full text can be obtained from ASA, 1061 American Lane Schaumburg, IL 60173-4973 or online at www.asahq.org.
  • Excerpted from Continuum of Depth of Sedation: Definition of General Anesthesia and Levels of Sedation/ Analgesia, 2014, of the American Society of A copy of the full text can be obtained from ASA, 1061 American Lane Schaumburg, IL 60173-4973 or online at www.asahq.org.
  • Excerpted from ASA Task Force on Practice Guidelines for Sedation and Analgesia by non-Anesthesiologists; Anesthesiology; 2005-2006. A copy of the full text can be obtained from ASA, 1061 American Lane Schaumburg, IL 60173-4973 or online at asahq.org.
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